The Leiden Institute of Physics (LION) is the Physics department of Leiden University, The Netherlands. It is comprised of 40 research groups divided over three research sections: Biological and Soft Matter Physics, Quantum Matter and Optics, and Theoretical Physics. Two physicists have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics whilst working at LION. Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1913) researched material behaviour at ultra-low temperatures and discovered liquid helium, and Hendrik Lorentz (1902) played a major role in the development of Albert Einstein's theory of special relativity. The most prestigious Dutch science award, the NWO Spinozapremie, has been awarded three times to a professor at LION. Carlo Beenakker (1999), Jan Zaanen (2006) and Dirk Bouwmeester (2014) received the highest honour in Dutch science.
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