The International Council for Science (ICSU), formerly the International Council of Scientific Unions, was founded in 1931 as an international non-governmental organization devoted to international co-operation in the advancement of science. Its members are national scientific bodies, and international scientific unions, including the International Mathematical Union, the International Astronomical Union and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. "ICSU’s mission is to strengthen international science for the benefit of society. To do this, ICSU mobilizes the knowledge and resources of the international science community to: ICSU was founded to bring together natural scientists in international scientific endeavour. As of 2012, it comprises 120 multi-disciplinary National Scientific Members, Associates and Observers (scientific research councils or science academies) representing 140 countries and 31 international, single-discipline Scientific Unions. ICSU also has 22 Scientific Associates.