Sep 15, 2011
material, including carbon, is cycled between Earth's surface and depths of hundreds of miles


Although we have evidence that Earth never completely melted [1,2], the upper mantle melted and degasses to produce the oceans and atmosphere.

1. "The xenon record of extinct radioactivities in the Earth," Science 174, 1334-1336 (1971)

2. "Noble gases in an Hawaiian xenolith", Nature 257, 778-780 (1975)

3. "The noble gas record of the terrestrial planets", Geochemical Journal 15, 247-267 (1981)


With kind regards,
Oliver K. Manuel
Former NASA Principal
Investigator for Apollo
Sep 17, 2011
Sep 19, 2011
Is this mineral inclusion perovskite? The article fails to name the crystal.

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